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e - ORGANIC TRACEABILITY

"Organic agriculture is an environment friendly ecological production system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and biological activities.

Organic foods have far less residues of pesticides, growth promoters and antibiotics .Organic food tastes better.

Organic production aims, at all times towards sustainability while having best management of the environment and wildlife as a priority."

  

 


FARM PROFILE OF THE DISTRICT - Varanasi

FARM PROFILE OF THE DISTRICT - Varanasi

Varanasi is situated in the Agro climatic zone of eastern plain region of Uttar Pradesh, bordering the districts of Jaunpur in the north, Ghazipur in the northeast, Chandauli in the east, Mirzapur in the south and Sant Ravidasnagar in the west. The total area of the district is 1526.36 sq. km, supporting a population of 31.48 lakh persons. This district is densely populated, with 2063 persons per square km, as against the state average of 689 persons per square km. This district is divided in to eight blocks namely, Araziline, Baragaon, Chiraigaon, Cholapur, Haruha, KVP, Pindra, Sewapuri.

The river system consists of the mighty Ganga highly revered by Hindus since ages and Gomti, Varuna, Asi, Banganga, Chandra Prabha and Karmanasa are tributaries of the Ganga, that drain the area.

The brief profile of the district is given in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1. Varanasi District Profile at a Glance

 

Item

Characteristics

Value

1

Area

 

1.1

Geographical area (Sq km)

1526.56

 

1.2

Forest (ha)

712

 

1.3

Net sown area (000 ha)

113.946

 

1.4

Area sown more than once (000 ha)

62

 

1.5

Total cropped area (000 ha)

157.096

 

1.6

Cropping intensity (%)

138 %

 

1.7

Fallow land (ha)

2587

 

1.8

Land not available for cultivation (ha)

10003

2

Administrative

 

2.1

No of blocks

8

 

2.2

No of villages (inhabited)

1262

 

2.3

No. of villages (electrified)

728 (57.68 %)

 

2.4

No of villages with potable water supply

1262 (100%)

3

Rainfall (mm)

 

3.1

Normal

1019

 

3.2

Actual (2006)

745

 

3.3

Actual (2005)

737

4

Agro-climatic region and zone

Eastern plain region

5

Population (000)

 

5.1

Total

3147.93

 

5.2

Male

1650.14

 

5.3

Female

1497.79

 

5.4

Population below poverty line (families)

62921

6

Literacy (%)

 

6.1

Total

67.09

 

6.2

Male

83.66

 

6.3

Female

48.59

7

Credit infrastructure

 

7.1

Nationalized bank branches

163

 

7.2

Regional Rural Banks

36

 

7.3

Cooperative Banks

14

 

7.4

Cooperative and Village Development Bank

2

8

Agricultural & allied work forces

 

8.1

Cultivator

207666

 

8.2

Small & marginal farmers

195581

 

8.3

Agricultural labourers

102573

 

8.4

Artisans

92567

 

8.5

Other workers

303283

9

Irrigation (ha)

 

9.1

Net irrigated area (ha)

99049

 

9.2

By canals (ha)

11372

 

9.3

By tube wells (ha)

85357

 

9.3

By wells/ ponds (ha)

2205

 

9.4

By other Sources (ha)

98

10

Agriculture support facilities

 

10.1

Seed/fertilizers depots (No.)

148

 

10.2

Rural markets/ Mandis (No.)

03

 

10.3

Cold storage (No. / Capacity)

14 / 37217 MT.

 

10.4

Rural Godowns (No. / Capacity)

102 / 2400 MT.

11

Dairy animals

 

11.1

Cattle (cows)

69,779

 

11.2

Buffaloes

72,279

 

11.3

Goat/Sheep/ pig

95726/ 15872/ 6561

 

11.4

Poultry birds

335636

12

Fertilizers consumption (kg per ha)

403

Source: Potential Linked Credit Plan (2008-09), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development & (Source: Statistical Magazine; Govt. of U.P.)(http://upgov.nic.in)

The majority of population is rural and the district is primarily agrarian with 73.5% of the geographical area under cultivation. A net sown area is around 1.14-lakh hectares out of which nearly half (62 thousand hectares) is sown more than once with 138% crop intensity. Small and marginal farmers dominate the scenario of land holding and nearly 94% of the land holdings are of less than 1 hectare in size (Table 3.2).

Table 3.2: Distribution of Operational Holdings

Farm size

Ha

Operational holdings

Area operated

Number

%

Ha

%

Less than 1.0

195581

94.00

102726

81.00

Between 1 & 2

9727

5.00

15635

12.00

Above 2

2358

1.00

8175

7.00

Total

207666

100.00

126536

100.00

(Source: Statistical Magazine; Govt. of U.P.) (http://upgov.nic.in)

 

3.1. Crop Sector

����������� Kharif, rabi and zaid are three major cropping seasons in the district, with approx 0.99-lakh hectares or 87% of the net cultivated area is being irrigated. The agricultural potential of the district can be rated as high. The major crops grown in the district are wheat, paddy & pulses. Paddy, maize, jowar and pulses like Arhar, urd are the major crops grown during Kharif season, while wheat, pea, gram and masoor are the principal crops grown during Rabi season. Paddy and maize are the crops cultivated during zaid season.

The productivity of major crops in the district during 2006-07 is given in 3.4. The blockwise details regarding availability of major fertilizers are given in Table 3.5.

 

Table 3.4.: Details of main crops in the district, 2006-07 (Checked)

 

Text Box:  Crop	Croped area (ha)	% of total cropped area	Production (q)	Productivity (q/ha)
1.	Food grain 				
    Wheat	69,323	43.24	1486630	21.44
    Paddy	60,959	38.03	956450	15.69
2.	Coarse grain 				
Maize	8,331	5.20	110050	13.21
Jwar	1,661	1.04	22210	14.42
Bajra	2,455	1.53	32620	13.29
3.	Pulses 				
Urd	796	0.50	5750	7.22
Arhar	4,784	2.98	43410	9.07
Gram	2,722	1.70	25140	9.24
Peas	3,006	1.80	47950	15.95
4.	Mustard 	3,817	2.38	19100	5.00
5.	Others 	2,448	1.53		
Total 	160,302	100.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3.5: Details of Fertilizers availability through different sources in district Varanasi (MT)

Block

Nitrogen

Phosphorous

Potash

Total

Baragaon

4534

1639

591

6764

Pindra

4447

1796

710

6953

Cholapur

5180

2010

662

7852

Chiraigaon

4126

1979

677

6782

Haruha

4143

1867

576

6586

Sewapuri

4527

1741

574

6842

Araziline

4826

2011

622

7459

KVP

3955

1739

538

6232

Total

35738

14782

4950

55470

(Source: Statistical Magazine; Govt. of U.P.)(http://upgov.nic.in)

 

Fruits like mango, guava, anola and vegetable crops like tomato, brinjal, cucumber, leafy vegetables, ladies fingers and capsicum are the other crops grown in the district.

The details of area and productivity of major fruit crops is given in the Table 3.7.

 

Table 3.7: Area, production and productivity of major fruit crops of district

 

S. No.

Horticulture Crop

Area (ha)

Production (MT)

Productivity (t/ha)

1

Mango

3550

����.

����..

2

Guava

3020

����

�����

3

Citrus

410

3100

7.60

4

Papaya

820

21000

25.60

5

Ber

700

6300

9.00

6

Karaonda

850

22000

25.90

7

Falsa

200

1025

5.10

8

Aonla

25

200

8.00

Source: Potential Linked Credit Plan (2008-09), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

The targets and achievements regarding productivity of major crops in the district are given in Table 3.7, which reveals that there has always been a gap in achievement of targets for productivity. This indicates that the efficient use of inputs and adoption of scientific crop production practices needs to be promoted for achieving the optimum productivity.

3.1.1.The district has been covered under 'State Horticulture Mission' launched in 2005, which is a part of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) of GOI. The mission involves promotion of commercial cultivation, rejuvenation, post harvest management and marketing of commercial horticulture like mango, guava, banana, aonla, mentha, scented rose, mushrooms, bee keeping, organic farming, pack house and provision of marketing infrastructure.

3.2.2.The majors constraints addressed in the district are a need for better and assured irrigation and uninterrupted power supply. Though the district has been bestowed with good network of canals, they have become dilapidated due to neglect much investment in repairs & renovation. Besides these, other constraints being faced in the district are the non-availability of timely and adequate supply of quality inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, power supply etc. The extension services need to be improved with a focus on new technology and environmental concerns. The district is also suffers from a chronic problem of being ravaged by droughts every alternate year.

3.2.3. Exploiting excessive ground water due to cultivation of paddy in the rabi season is gradually becoming hazardous to the environment. This issue can be addressed by crop diversification, through which other crops, which envisages lower water uses and are equally remunerative, if not the farmers could consider more. An alarming features which is increasingly been noticeable particularly in peri urban areas is the filling up of small pond/ tank/ reservoir for commercial purposes, which deprives rain water harvesting & consequent local ground water recharge.

3.2. Main Industries

To support the agriculture sector there is a strong needs to develop industrial sector, which can enhance the demands for raw materials for processing industries. The processing industries are operating in this district.

  1. Handicrafts industry
  2. Khadi and handlooms
  3. Agriculture and livestock based industries
  4. Forest produce based
  5. Fibre based other than handlooms
  6. Chemical and polymers based
  7. Minerals based general engineering industry

Cottage industry, trade and services have traditionally been the other important sector contributing to the economy of the district, as has inward remittances by workers, both inland and overseas. Silk sarees weaving, electric fan manufacturing, fruit preservation, small wooden toy making etc have been traditionally undertaken. Most of these activities are in a state decline due to competition of similar products at much cheaper rates.

Major Food and Commercial Crops � Wheat, Paddy, sugarcane, potato and pulses.

Major Horticulture Crops - Mango, guava, and aonla.

3.3 Livestock Sector

Animal husbandry sector envisages implementation of programme to increase the production of milk, egg and wool etc through rapid breed improvement. It also generates employment opportunities and supplementary income to rural masses comprising small, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. It is not only provides full employment to thousands of rural people but also produce food of immense nutritional importance. This sector comprises of the following sub sectors.

                                 i.            Dairy development

                               ii.            Poultry development

                              iii.            Sheep, Goat & Piggery development

The blockwise population of livestock is given in Table 3.6.

 

Table 3.9: Population of major livestock in district (checked)

S.N.

Block

Cow

Buffalo

Total

(Cow + buffalo)

Goat

PIG

Sheep

Poultry

1

Baragaon

20350

12169

32519

9283

972

2398

41941

2

Pindra

35109

21349

56458

18764

1855

3067

64581

3

Cholapur

18572

22937

41509

12773

1164

1539

22170

4

Chiraigaon

17990

22315

40305

10748

1153

1874

21363

5

Haruha

17319

13198

30517

11999

570

968

27735

6

Sewapuri

14224

15475

29699

8275

294

945

27926

7

Araziline

32068

21224

53292

13623

246

4859

68299

8

KVP

11799

8845

20644

10261

307

222

61621

 

Total

167431

137512

304943

95726

6561

15872

335636

(Source: Statistical Magazine; Govt. of U.P.)(http://upgov.nic.in)

 

3.3.1. Dairy development in the recent times has assured great importance as an allied activity to agriculture. It has not only provided gainful employment to the people of rural areas but also increased their income. Besides, due to nutrient value of dairy products, the activity is also being practiced on commercial basis.

Varanasi district is being a tourist and pilgrimage centre, there is ample demand for milk around the year. Thus, dairy forms a strong support and employment base to rural and urban population of the district, which is the most important economic activity next to agriculture sector.

Small and marginal farmers dominate Varanasi district, which comprises around 94% of the total population. Majority of them have the land holding of less than 1 ha in size. The district has gained prominence over the decades in the production of milk and with the ever-increasing demand for milk and milk products in the area, this district continues to remain an important source of milk supply. There are good numbers of milch animals in the district and the total milk production is estimated as 763 lakh litres per annum and 66 ml/person/day as against the national level of 247 ml/person/day. The dairy profile of Varanasi district is given in Table 3.7.

Table 3.8 Dairy Profile of Varanasi District

1.        

Population of breedable Cross bred cows

15,495

2.        

Population of breedable Desi Cows

54,284

3.        

Population of breedable Buffaloes

72,279

4.        

Total Milk production (000 Ltrs)

76,300

5.        

Total Average yield (000 ltrs/day)

200-225

6.        

Average (ml / person/ day)

66

Source: Potential Linked Credit Plan (2008-09), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

3.3.2.The total population of poultry in the district is approx 3.35 lakhs. The estimated egg production in the district is 258 lakh eggs per year (Desi- 139 lakh & Improved- 119 lakh), which provides 8.0 eggs per person per annum as against the national level of 40 eggs per person per annum. There is a huge scope for development of poultry activity as meat and eggs are in short supply in the district and the requirement of the district is met by imports from A.P., Maharastra, Haryana and Jabalpur (M.P.).

3.3.3. Sheep, goat and pig rearing are generally taken up by most of the farmers in the district for additional source of income. Due to population pressure and fragmentation of land holdings, agriculture alone cannot provide sufficient income for the farmers. Therefore, there is a good scope for rearing of livestock especially sheep, goat and pigs. They can be easily fed on farm waste and household waste. Goat rearing is traditionally done to meet both milk and meet requirements of the people. The livestock are source of meat, skin, fibre, milk and manure and contribute as major source of livelihood for rural poor. The sheep breeds available in the region produce medium to coarse wool suitable for carpet weaving and it is consumed in the local carpet areas near Bhadhoi. Goats and pigs are prolific breeders and do not require much care compared to other livestock. The agro climatic conditions of the district are conductive to support this activity. Goat rearing has been more popular although pig and sheep rearing is also promise good scope in almost all blocks of the district, however, due to social taboo, this activity is not picking up.

The total population of goats, sheep and pigs population is 95726, 15872, and 6561, respectively. The estimated annual meat production of the district is around 3.66-lakh kg, which provides 116 gms per person per annum as against the recommended level of 9 kg per person per annum. There are 8 sheep-breeding centre, 1 piggery-breeding centre and 1 ram centre in the district.

3.3.4. Fisheries play an important role in the economy of the district in augmenting food supply, generating employment in the rural areas and nutritional value of food. Although, agriculture is the most important sector in view of saturation in agriculture production, diversification of agriculture through allied activities like fish farming has become necessary.

Main sources of fisheries in the district are rivers and perennial as well as seasonal water bodies. With a considerable good network of water bodies, the district offers immense scope for development of fisheries. As per information received from FFDA, there are 899 Gram Sabha ponds (580.52 ha) and 122 private ponds (72.34 ha) in the district. There is no commercial hatchery in the district. There is one demonstration hatchery at Government fish farm at village Deendaspur, Arajiline block. However, it is not commercial operating.